How virtual technologies and business are combined. For some, a virtual organization is essentially a company in which employees are dispersed in time and space. Thus, this concept of a virtual organization is based on the spatio-temporal separation of company employees; distancing is made possible thanks to the latest developments in the field of information and communication technologies. A typical definition of a virtual organization in accordance with this approach is the definition according to which a virtual enterprise is a geographically distributed organization whose members are connected by common interests or a long-term goal, and who communicates and coordinates their work using information technology.
Defined in this way, a virtual organization looks like a company that has its own pros and cons of virtual technologies in the value chain between suppliers, manufacturers and end users of a product / service and where the work is largely decentralized. Using NICT (mainly e-mail and video conferencing), company employees can work from their homes, customer premises, suppliers, telecentres.
Therefore, they can work together, although they are spatially and temporarily removed from each other. Employees of this type of organization are linked by a common long-term goal or interest. This stability of the relationship between virtual employees of the enterprise means that they sometimes have the opportunity to meet face-to-face in workshops or working groups. This is one of the main differences from other virtual organization concepts, as we will see later.
According to this point of view, a virtual organization is characterized by a set of attributes that fundamentally distinguish it from a classical organization. As the name suggests, this is a geographically dispersed firm. Geographic dispersion consists of the collapse of a firm after moving social relationships that reproduce it. This follows from the spatio-temporal distance, which characterizes the work within the organization.
Virtual organization employees can work anywhere and anytime if they correctly perform the tasks assigned to them. Basically, thanks to the latest advances in information and communication technology, geographic dispersion is possible. Virtual reality technologies in business is gaining popularity. ICTs allow employees located in remote geographic areas to make contact and work together.
Email, Internet, Extranet, and video conferencing are currently the technologies most commonly used by companies. On the other hand, the intensive use of e-mail in virtual organizations means that communication in these organizations is characterized by a high degree of informality. This is mainly due to the actual absence of formal rules and procedures, as well as clear standards for the transfer and exchange of information in such companies. As a result, virtual organizations often tend to be non-hierarchical and decentralized. In this context, trust becomes a paramount variable. Being associated with a lack of time and space, trust will contribute to the development of a safe and reliable relationship with others who are absent and whom we rarely encounter face to face.
In contrast to this concept, an organization is considered completely virtual if each of the stages in the production of its goods or services is carried out outside the firm. This will then play the role of coordinator of these different stages; The goal is to optimize every stage of the company’s value chain. Outsourcing functions are usually “peripheral” functions. Key functions, that is, those that are directly related to the competitive advantage of the company, often remain within the organization. Thus, the structure of a virtual organization is represented by a set of nodes (member companies) and interconnections, mainly electronic, which are all connected with the central core represented by the leading organization of projects (virtual organization).
The virtual reality market is not a recent market. It has historically been associated with computer-aided design (CAD) and for several years has been reserved for professional applications of large industrial groups in various fields of activity (aeronautics, railways, healthcare / research, automotive), which will constitute for a long time the main commercial outlet for this type of technique.